Yarn Friction

Friction is a very important factor in all phases of knitting. In case of yarn friction applies to resistance developed by yarn sliding over another yarn or over metallic or ceramic bodies. There are two types of friction 1) static 2) kinetic. Resistance offered by the yarn in contact with guides bars or eyelets. When the machine is started is an example of static friction while movement of yarn through the guides or needles when the machine is running is kinetic friction. Static friction is generally greater than kinetic friction. Frictional resistance or coefficient of friction depends on many factors such as:

Count in Different System

Tex: The yarn number or count in the tex system is the weight in grams of 1000m or 1km of yarn.

The system is therefore a direct system simply define and simple to use. For fibers, the fineness is expressed in “Militex”.

Militex: Count in the militex system is the weight in mg of 1000m or 1km of yarn.

Kilotex: Count in the kilotex system is the weight in kg of 1000m or 1km of yarn.

Denier: The no. of count in denier system is the weight in grams of 9000m or 9km of yarn.

Pound per spindle (Jute system): The yarn number or count in the pound per spindle is the weight in pounds of 14400 yards of yarn.

Indirect system:
English system (Ne): The yarn number or count in English system is defined as the number of hanks 840yds per pound. It is denoted by Ne.

Metric system: The yarn number or count in metric system is defined as the number of hanks (1000m) per kg. It is denoted by Nm.

Worsted system: The yarn number or count in worsted system is defined as the number of hanks (560yds) per pounds. It is denoted by Nw.

Ginning of Cotton Seed

Ginning of seed cotton: The freshly picked cotton has seeds in it is called seed cotton. After picking the cotton fiber has to be separated from seeds. The process by which the seeds are separated from the fiber is called ginning. There are mainly two types of ginning.

How to Dye Cotton Yarn

There is a long story of Yarn Dyeing. Recent days to a craft project, hand dyed yarn can add a personal touch. To dye different types of yarn you can use many more natural materials including powdered drinks and flowers. There is 11 steps to dye cotton yarn which I described below.
  1. Buy the yarn: At first buy the yarn in a hank, not a ball. A hank had long twist and braid. You must have to ensure that the yarn should be dyeable cotton. To ensure this just check the label.
  2. Prepare the detergent to clean the yarn:
    1. Fill a bath with clean water. There should be enough water to submerge the yarn, ever yarn absorbed water by yarn.
    2. Put detergent into the water. To remove excess dyes from textile is the main purpose of using detergent. Also detergent keeps the color from bleeding.
  3. Soak the yarn in the detergent solution: Soaking the yarn will ensure that it is clean, and that all colors or substances that hinder the dyeing process are washed away.
    1. Place the hank of yarn into the bucket of water and soap. Use rubber gloves when handling the yarn. Rubber gloves will keep your hands from being stained with dye or chemicals.
    2. Allow the yarn to soak until it is completely wet, for approximately 1 hour.
  4. Remove the yarn from the bath:
    1. From bath take the yarn out of water and soap.
    2. To remove moisture wring out the hank of yarn.
    3. Empty and rinse the bath.
  5. Prepare the soda ash: Place water and soda ash in the bath. Then mix them. After that just ensure soda ash dissolved.
  6. Soak the yarn in the soda ash solution: To cling the yarn fibers which helped by soda ash. Buy soda ash at a yarn supply or crafts store.
    1. Place the hank of yarn in the bath. Allow the yarn to soak for five minutes.
    2. Remove the yarn.
    3. Twist the yarn with slight pressure to remove moisture.
    4. Lay the yarn on a flat sheet of plastic. Ensure that the yarn is spread evenly in a long line.
  7. Mix the dye.
  8. Combine 1 qt: Combine hot water with urea in a large container. Ensure that the urea dissolves in the water. Urea is a chemical that keeps the yarn wet, ensuring that the dye sticks to the yarn. Urea is available at yarn supply or crafts stores.
    1. Place 1tsp of cold reactive dye into a cup. Cold reactive dye is a dye specially formulated for use with textiles.
    2. Pour just enough water into the cup to make a paste. Mix the dye well.
    3. Add 1 cup of the urea water to the paste.
    4. Use the same procedure for any additional colors you with to use. Mix each color in a separate cup.
  9. Dye the yarn:
    1. Use a foam brush to apply the dye to the yarn. Apply the dye with short sweeping motions. Begin at one end of the yarn and move towards the opposite end. Use a separate foam brush for each color of dye.
    2. Flip the yarn over onto its undyed side when you have reached the end of the line of yarn.
    3. Repeat the application of the dye, moving from one end of the yarn to the other.
    4. Look inside the center portion of the yarn to ensure that all of the yarn has been dyed.
    5. Apply dye to any sports that you missed.
  10. Cover the yarn: Place a plastic sheet over the yarn. Allow the yarn to remain covered for 24 hours.
  11. Remove the excess dye:
    1. Combine 1 tsp textile detergent in a bath with enough water to submerge the hank of yarn.
    2. Remove the plastic sheet from the yarn.
    3. Hold the yarn over a sink.
    4. Pour the soapy water over the yarn. Continue to rinse the yarn until the water is clear. Ensure that the yarn remains as free of tangles as possible.
    5. Twist the yarn gently to remove moisture.
    6. Allow the yarn to dry.

General Instructions for Final Inspection (Batching)

The general instructions for final inspection(Batching) are given below,
1. All pieces will be graded on the base of 40 points per 100 linear yards mapping will be done on each piece to insure proper grading. Do not count more than 4 points per one yard.
2. All defects must be recorded and marked in final inspection and an accurate account of points made to insure proper grading.