Textile Fiber

Fiber is a long material with a very high length to diameter ratio which is known as Fiber. Eg: 1400:1. A fiber having a high length to diameter ratio, cohesiveness strength elasticity absorbency, strength softness etc is called Textile Fiber.

The material which consist fibrous structure and length is thousand time higher than its width. And which can be spun into yarns suitable for weaving or knitting is classified as Textile Fiber.

To become a textile fiber, it must have some fundamental properties:
  1. It should have fibrous structure and length should be thousand time higher than its width.
  2. It must have sufficient strength, elasticity and spinning power.
  3. It should have fine structure and flexible.
  4. It should have dye ability.
  5. It should be economical.
Some important properties of Textile Fiber:
  1. Fine structure and appearance: The surface structure of a fiber is most important in that it control the behavior of the fiber in the yarn and fabric.
Rough surface of fiber enable individual fibers to grip one another when twisted together as a yarn. But it collects dust from the atmosphere. E.g.: Cotton, wool. The smooth surface of fiber affects the lustrous appearance of the fabric. It may not cling to dust as easily as rough surface. E.g.: Nylon, Silk.
  1. Strength: Strength of any material is determined by breaking strength, which expressed as force per unit cross sectional area with this term, we may describe the ability of a bundle of fiber or a yarn, to resist breakage under tension. It case of single fiber, strength is described as tenacity,
Tenacity= (Breaking load/Mass per unit length).
  1. Elongation: When a fiber is subjected to a force. It will stretch to a certain degree. The stretching is described as elongation or extension. It can be measured either as elongation under certain load or as the elongation reached under the fiber breaks. It is exposed in percentage.
  2. Elasticity: The behavior of a fiber is expressed by elastic recovery. When a fiber is stretched by a force. It will elongate and after releasing the force. It will return to its original length or to an elongated form. This is expressed in percentage. The elastic recovery of a fiber depends on what load is applied and how man times it is held in the stretched position.
  3. Moisture regain: All fiber absorbs moisture when it contact with the atmosphere. The weight of moisture present in a textile material is expressed as a percentage of its oven dry weight.
  4. Thermal: The behavior of fibers or heating has real importance particularly within the range of temperatures that one met in practical use. Fabrics should with stand the temperature used in processing drying, ironing without under deterioration.
  5. Chemical: Processing of fibers, yarns and fabric often involve the use of chemicals in great variety. Bleaching agent, detergents, alkalis, acids, dyeing assistants and other chemicals are used in preparing the finished textile. The fiber itself must be able to withstand those substance without suffering harmful effect.