Mercerization is a process where cotton or yarn is treated with 1-2% caustic soda solution at temperature of 20-30ºC. It is necessary to hold the fabric under tension and wash thoroughly.
Benefits obtained by Mercerization/Objectives:
  1. Increase tensile strength.
  2. Improved hygroscopicity.
  3. Improved smoothness.
  4. Improved luster.
  5. Improved dimensional stability.
  6. 20-30% dye and chemical same while dyeing after mercerization.
Effect of mercerizing condition:
  1. Concentration of caustic soda solution.
  2. Temperature (15-25ºC).
  3. Tension.
  4. Time.
  5. Wash thoroughly.
  6. Wetting agents (0.5-1.0gm/l).
The effect of mercerized cotton depends on various factors:
  1. Cross-section of the fiber.
  2. Staple length of the fiber.
  3. Wall thickness of the fiber.
  4. Concentration of sodium hydroxide.
  5. Temperature of mercerization solution.
  6. Tension.
  7. Yarn construction.
  8. Yarn twist.
  9. Doubling of yarns.
  10. Degree of singeing.
  11. Application of tension.
  12. Rate of drying etc.

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