Basic detergents are surface active compound. The compounds which get orient at the interface and reduce interfacial tension or surface tension are called surface active compound or detergent.
A substant that consists the removal of dirt. The removal is affected by emulsification of the dirt particles and the substance normally has the power of suspending the dirt in cleaning liquid.
Classification of detergent: Detergent are two types, these are:
  1. Ionic.
  2. Non Ionic.
Ionic detergent is three types. These are,
  1. Anionic.
  2. Cationic.
  3. Amphoteric.
Anionic detergent: When the detergents are ionized into anion and cation but the anion is the dominating ion in the solution, there fore the surfactant is called an anionic surfactant. Eg, soap.
C17H35COONa→C17H35COO+ Na+
Among the ions anion C17H35COO is comparatively very large to sodium ion. This sodium stearate is called anionic stearate.
Cationic detergent: Ionic surface active agent which produces cation a dominating ion when dissolved in water is called cationic detergent. eg. Catyl pyrinidium chloride.
Among there cation is a large compound and act as a dominating ion.