Soap

Soap is a metallic salt of saturated or unsaturated higher fatty acid. There may be Pb, Mg, Ca or other metallic salts. Soap is made up commercially by boiling natural oil.
chemical structure of soap

The following oil is used in soap manufacturing:
  1. Cotton seed oil.
  2. Coconut oil.
  3. Oliver oil.
  4. Soya bean oil.
  5. Palm oil.
  6. Ground nut oil.
Properties of soap:
  1. Soap dissolve very slowly in cold water but rapidly in hot water.
  2. Soap dissolve in hot alcohol but sparingly soluble in the organic solvents such as acetone.
  3. In extremely dilute soap ionized:
    ionized soap
Sometimes there is free fatty acid molecule in soap to form what is known as acid soap.
XRCOOH+YCOONa→(RCOOH)Y(RCOONa)X
This acid soap caused uneven shade in the fabric.
  1. Soap reacts with hard water.
C17H35COONa+CaSO4→(C17H35COO)2Ca+Na2SO4
The number of carbon atom in the aliphatic chain of soap is very important. If there carbon amount is 9, then there is no detergency power. And if there is carbon amount is 17 then there is extremely detergency power. If carbon amount is more then 17 then there is poor solubility.


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