Finishing Process of Cotton

Purification and preliminary process: The grey cloth, woven cotton fabric in its loom-state, not only contains impurities, including warp size, but requires further treatment in order to develop its full textile potential. Further more, it may receive considerable added value by applying one or more finishing processes.
  1. Singeing: Singeing is designed to burn off the surface fibers from the fabric to produce smoothness. The fabric process over brushes to raise the fibers then passes over a plate heated by gas flames.
  2. Desizing: Depending on the size that has been used, the cloth may be steeped in a dilute acid and then rinsed or enzyme may be used to break down the size.
  3. Scouring: Scouring is a chemical washing process carried out on cotton fabric to remove natural wax and non-fibrous impurities from the fibers and any added soiling or dirt. The fabric is boiled in an alkali, which forms soap with free fatty acids (safonification). A kier is usually enclosed, so the solution of sodium hydroxide can be boiled under pressure, excluding oxygen which would degrade the cellulose in the fiber. If the appropriate reagents are used, scouring will also remove the size form the fabric although desizing often precedes scouring and it is considered to be a separate process known as fabric preparation.
  4. Bleaching: Bleaching improves whiteness by removing natural color and remaining trace impurities form cotton, the degree of bleaching necessary is determined by the required whiteness and absorbency.
  5. Mercerizing: A further possibility is mercerizing during which the fabric is treated with caustic soda solution to cause swelling of the fibers. This results in improved luster, strength and dye affinity. Mercerizing can take place on grey cloth or after dyeing.
  6. Dyeing: Dyeing is a term which refers to dye the textile materials by using many substances.
  7. Printing: The printing is described as localized dyeing i.e.: dyes or pigments are applied locally or discontinuously to produce the various design. The main purpose of textile printing is the production of attractive designs with well defined boundaries made by artistic arrangement of a motif or motifs in one or more color.
  8. Finishing is a term which usually refers to the treatments given on a textile material to enhance quality, after coloration but before the textiles is cut and sewn into garments, house hold textiles or other products.

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