Dyes

Colored substance of dyeing which has an affinity to the substrate is known as Dyes. Generally dyes applied in aqueous solution. The main aim of dyes is to improve the fastness of fiber and fabrics. Dyes are also applied in Textiles, Leather, Plastics, and Paper in liquid form.
Classification of Dyes:
  1. According to the Application:
i. Direct dyes.
a. Acid.
b. Basic.
ii. Mordant dyes.
iii. Ingrain dyes.
iv. Vat dyes.
  1. According to the Chemical structure:
i. Nitro and Nitrosodyes.
ii. Triphenyl methane dyes.
iii. Azo dyes.
iv. Phthalein dyes.
Industrial Classification of Dyes:
In Textile industry, majority amount of dyestuff is primarily consumed world wide. That’s why the classification of dyes can be done according to dyes performance in dyeing process. More than 60% dyestuffs are based on Azo dyes world wide.
Major Dye’s classes and the substrates:
  1. Basic.
  2. Direct.
  3. Acid.
  4. Azoic.
  5. Vat.
  6. Sulphur.
  7. Reactive.
  8. Solvent.
  9. Disperse.
Dye application of fibers:
Dyes
                    Fibers
Acid
Wool, nylon, Silk
Azoic
Cotton, Rayon, acetate, cellulose, polyester
Basic
Polyester, modified  nylon
Direct
Cotton ,nylon, Rayon
Mordant
Wool,
Sulfur
Cotton, Rayon
Disperse
Polyester, Acrylic, polyamide
Reactive
Cotton, wool, silk, nylon

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