Water is a transparent, odorless, tasteless liquid.  It is a chemical compound consisting of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen. The name water typically refers to the liquid state of the compound. The solid phase is known as ice and gas phase is called steam. Water contains 11.188 percent hydrogen and 88.812 percent oxygen, by weight. It’s freezing at 32°F or 0°C and boiling at 212°F or 100°C.
water structure
Types of Water: Water can be classified into many types. Such as,
  1. Hard water.
  2. Boiled water.
  3. Raw water.
  4. Rain water.
  5. Snow water.
  6. Filtered water.
  7. Soft water.
  8. De-ionized Water.
  9. Etc.
Source of Water: The sources of water are four types. These are,
1.      Rain water.
2.      Surface water.
3.      Sub-soil water.
4.      Deep well water.
Rain Water: Rain water is the purest water of all natural water. It contains suspended impurities such as Sulpher-di-oxide (Sio2), HCl, CO2, NH3 etc. It’s suitable for boiling, washing and dyeing process.
rain water
Surface Water: Surface water contains rain water which has collected from ponds, rivers or lacks. This type of water contains organic or inorganic matters. It’s not suitable for dyeing and finishing.
surface water
Sub-Soil Water: This type of water is collected from shallow springs and well which is about 5o ft or so deep. Not suitable for dyeing and finishing.
sub soil water
Deep Well Water: This type of water is obtained 500m below the surface. It’s free from the organic matter. It is suitable for dyeing and finishing process.
deep well water
Use of Water in Textile: In textile section, water can be used in different ways. Such as,
1.      Boilers supplying steam for heating and dyeing.
2.      Wet process for pre-treatment (Singeing, De-sizing, Scouring, bleaching etc.)
3.      Dyeing Operation.
4.      Finishing operation.
Purification of Water: Water can be purified by different ways. Such as,
1.      Boiling.
2.      Iodine Treatment
3.      Chlorine Treatment
4.      Filtration
Boiling: Boiling is the most certain way of killing all microorganisms. According to the Wilderness Medical Society, water temperatures above 160° F (70° C) kill all pathogens within 30 minutes and above 185° F (85° C) within a few minutes.
Iodine Treatment: Iodine is light sensitive and must always be stored in a dark bottle. It works best if the water is over 68° F (21° C). Iodine has been shown to be more effect than chlorine-based treatments.
Chlorine Treatment: Chlorine can be used for persons with iodine allergies or restrictions. Remember that water temperature, sediment level, and contact time are all elements in killing microorganisms in the water. Halazone is an example of a chlorine tablet product
Filtration: There are a number of devices on the market that filter out microorganisms. A water filter pumps water through a microscopic filter that is rated for a certain-size organism.


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