Loom is a machine or device which is used to produce woven fabric. It is the central point of the whole process of cloth production.
Classification of Loom: Loom mainly two types. They are:
  1. Hand Loom.
  2. Power Loom.
Hand loom is also divided into two types. They are:
i.        Dobby loom.
ii.      Jacquard loom.
Power loom is also divided into two types. They are:
i.        Shuttle loom.
ii.      Shuttle less loom.
Shuttle loom is also divided into two types. They are:
  1. Warp pattern.
  2. Weft pattern.
Warp pattern is also divided into tree types. They are:
  1. Tappet loom.
  2. Dobby loom.
  3. Jacquard loom.
Weft pattern is also having a type. This is:
  1. Multiple boxes.
Shuttle less loom is also divided into four types. They are:
  1. Projectile loom.
  2. Rapier loom.
  3. Air-jet loom.
  4. Water-jet loom.
Advantages of shuttle-less loom over shuttle loom:
1. Shuttle-less weave 2 to 4 times as much as conventional looms per unit time.
2. The cost of pirn winding is eliminated.
3. Strain upon the warp threads is reduced due to smaller depth of shed.
4. Heavy cost of repairs & replenishment of worn out parts is reduced they can produce simpler tubes of fabrics on a large scale & provide opportunities for profitable exploitation in the long run.
5. The physical & mental strain upon the weaver is reduced.
6. There is no risk of shuttle fly out owing to the absence of conventional shuttle & packing being positive.
7. Quality of the fabric gets enhanced because of a positive control over the weaving process.
8. The looms are easier to work & manipulate.
9. Efficiency of the shuttle weaving shed is comparatively higher.
10. Higher production per loom.
Motion in loom:
1. Basic primary motion.
2. Secondary motion.
3. Auxiliary or tertiary motion.
Basic primary motion:
a. Shedding: Driving warp threads in to two groups (By hill shaft).
b. Picking: Insertion of weft through the passage created by shedding.
c. eating: Pushing the inserted weft yarn in to the already woven fabric.
Secondary motion:
  1. Take-up
  2. Let-off
Auxiliary or tertiary motion:
  1. Warp stop motion
  2. Weft stop motion
  3. Loose reed motion
  4. Warp protector motion
  5. Fast reed motion


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